S1:E8 Pride and Joy
贯穿全季的是Elizabeth和Philip的婚姻挣扎，看得见她在心灰意懒与心意回转、失望与期待之间死循环，到头来只是无助，结尾以致无动于衷。感到Philip除了拈花惹草扩充王室press crisis management 好像就一向不什么样别的function了。。和这种一会儿冷一会儿热，自尊心爆棚的macho男士处一段关系--更而且婚姻--实在是太poisonous了。不得不感叹，还好她到底是女王，能够afford不受到任何妇女在类似场景下大致免不了收到的委屈，独一的代价是她无法afford离异。
Chapter Four: The Spanish Armada
England and Spain were enemies for many years. The King of Spain,
Philip II, was angry with Elizabeth for several reasons: the religious conflict was a growing problem and Philip wanted to bring back the Catholic faith to England.
For many years English pirates and privateers attacked Spanish galleons and took their rich treasure. This exasperated Philip.
In 1585 Elizabeth sent an army to help Dutch Protestants fight the Spanish.
When Mary Stuart was beheaded, Philip was furious. He decided to invade England and take the throne from Elizabeth. The Pope strongly supported his plan.
The Spanish Armada had about 130 big ships and about 28,000 men. It was commanded by the Duke of Medina Sidonia. Elizabeth knew about Philip's plan. She ordered her best captains, Sir Francis Drake, John Hawkins and Martin Frobisher to prepare for the attack.
England had a powerful navy of about 160 smaller ships and about 14,000
men. It was commanded by Lord Howard of Effingham, one of Elizabeth's cousins.
In 1587 Drake attacked 30 Spanish galleons by surprise in Cadiz, Spain. "I have singed the King of Spain's beard," he said proudly. His brilliant action pleased Elizabeth and hurt the Spanish.
Elizabeth did not like war, but she was determined to defend England.
Before the Spanish attack she visited her army and said, "I have the body of a weak ... woman, but I have the heart and stomach of a king!" She was a courageous woman.
In July 1588 the impressive Armada sailed up the English Channel. The weather was against the Spanish. The English attacked at Plymouth, using new tactics to surprise the enemy. After several sea battles the Armada reached Calais.
Lord Howard sent eight fireships to Calais. When the Spanish saw them they were terrified and immediately left the port. There were other sea battles and both countries fought courageously. In the end the Armada was badly defeated and returned to Spain with only 67 ships. This was a glorious victory for England, but it was a disaster for Spain. After this defeat, Spain slowly lost its sea power.
By 1590 Elizabeth was almost 60 years old. She was still healthy and energetic, but her aspect changed. She wore a red wig and her face was covered with heavy white make-up. Her teeth were in very bad condition.
However, she was still vain. Every morning she spent more than two hours getting ready. She had about 3,000 magnificent dresses and innumerable splendid jewels. She was always very careful with her personal hygiene and took a bath once a month. She hated bad odours and loud noise.
Elizabeth's court was a centre for playwrights, artists and musicians.
Edmund Spenser's famous work The Faerie Queen was dedicated to Elizabeth.
English drama flourished during this period. William Shakespeare was born on 23 April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. His father was a glove-maker . He attended school at Stratford until he was fifteen.
When he was eighteen he married Anne Hathaway and they had three children.
He went to London in about 1587, before the sea battle of the Spanish Armada. With England's brilliant victory over the Armada, the great English literary Renaissance began and Shakespeare became the most famous English writer of all time.
In London he worked as an actor and began to write plays and poetry. By 1592 William Shakespeare was famous in London. His plays were very successful and he became a rich man. He wrote 38 tragedies , comedies and historical plays. Some of his best known plays are Hamlet, Macbeth,
The Merchant of Venice, A Midsummer Night's Dream and Romeo and Juliet. He and his group often performed for Queen Elizabeth and her court.
People of all social classes started going to the theatre. In London open air theatres became very popular. Shakespeare's spectators were a noisy crowd.
They talked, laughed, shouted, ate and drank during the performances. In open air theatres plays began in the afternoon when there was plenty of light.
When it rained many of the spectators got wet. Women's roles were played by young men, because women did not act in the theatre.
Shakespeare's plays were performed at the Globe, the Swan and the Rose Theatres.
Shakespeare died on his birthday in 1616 and was buried in Stratford-upon-Avon. (The Globe Theatre was recently rebuilt so you can enjoy Shakespeare's plays on the original site in London.)
Other important Elizabethan playwrights were Ben Jonson and Christopher Marlowe.
Elizabeth's last favorite was the handsome Earl of Essex. She loved him dearly, although he was 34 years younger than her. She made him a military leader but he betrayed her. He was accused of treason and beheaded in 1601.
In 1603 Elizabeth was 70 years old. She ate very little and was weak. She died on March 24, 1603, and was the last Tudor monarch. She named James VI of Scotland, the son of Mary Stuart, heir to the throne. Her people mourned her for a long time.
Her reign lasted 44 years. Under Elizabeth trade grew, Spain was defeated and England became a European power .
Perform minor ceremonial tasks with a minimum of fuss
Not end up any of newspapers
E4：Margaret实在是本人心里中最有公主样的半边天了。本来很希望马特hew Goode的上场，缺憾他要么未能突破本人男直径瓶的一定，越发到第七集显出的人员动机太过单薄。结尾一整段"I only have eyes for you“的sequence非常完美，从搭配乐到cinematography到剪辑，相比Margaret一位在屋里起舞和Elizabeth/菲尔ip多人转身分登台阶，睡在隔着大厅两张最远的床的上面。
Part Four: The customs of Lilliput
One day I will write a big book about the kingdom of Lilliput. I will describe how the people live, and their habits. I will not describe it all here,
but I do want to say something about this interesting country.
It is important to remember that the people of Lilliput are very small. They are about six inches tall, and all the animals and trees are in proportion. The tallest horse is about five inches high, and a sheep about one inch. Some of the animals are so small that I could not see them easily. Birds, for example,are about the same size as flies in England. The tallest trees in Lilliput are seven feet high.
The Lilliputians are very educated people, but their way of writing is strange. They do not write from left to right like the Europeans, or from right to left like the Arabs. They do not write from the top of the page downwards,like the Chinese, or from the bottom upwards. They write from one corner of the paper to the opposite corner!
The laws of Lilliput are also very different to English laws. They regard trade as very important, and they think that trade depends on honesty. So they always punish fraud with death. I remember once I asked the Emperor to save a prisoner who had been found guilty of fraud.
'Death is too serious a punishment,' I said. 'This man's crime is only that he told lies to his friend, and robbed him.'
The Emperor was very angry with me. He explained that this kind of robbery is the worst crime in the world.
Another strange thing about Lilliput is this. They punish bad behaviour, as we do in England. But they also reward good behaviour, which we never do in England. A Lilliputian who has obeyed all the laws of the country for a long time, is given a special title and some money by the government.
Their ideas about children are very different to ours. They do not believe that parents should choose their children's education. All children are taken away from their parents when they are young, and are sent to nursery schools. When they are older, children go to different schools. The choice of school depends on the family the children come from.
The children from important families go to schools where they learn about religion, honour, justice , and courage. Their professors are always with them, and the children are not allowed to talk to the servants in the school.
Their parents can visit them once or twice a year, but they cannot bring them presents.
Girls also go to schools, where they learn the same things as boys. They are also taught about family life. Girls are not allowed to talk to the servants in their schools. The result of this is that they do not hear the silly stories of ignorant women. In general, the women of Lilliput are sensible and intelligent.
The children of ordinary people go to schools where they learn various trades and professions.
The children of the poorest people do not go to school, because they do not have to learn anything to do their work. Poor people in Lilliput are given a government pension when they are old or ill, and there are no beggars in the country.
I lived in Lilliput for nearly a year, and this is what my daily life was like.
I made myself a table and chair from one of the biggest trees I could find.
Two hundred women worked to make clothes for me. They used different techniques for measuring me, and these techniques amused me. The first method was to determine the length of my clothes. I lay on the ground, and one woman stood near my head, and another stood near my leg. They had a long piece of rope which they used as a measure of my height. When they wanted to make a jacket for me, they asked me to kneel on the ground. Then they placed a ladder against my neck. A man climbed to the top of ladder,
and threw a length of rope down to the ground. This showed them the correct length of the jacket they wanted to make.
Three hundred cooks worked to prepare my food every day. I lifted twenty waiters onto my table. They threw ropes over the side of the table to the ground below. The cooks attached the barrels of wine and dishes of food to the ropes, and the waiters pulled the food up to the table.
One night a very important Lilliputian came to see me at the temple. His visit there was a secret, he said.
'You are in danger,' he told me. 'The Emperor does not like you, and he wants to punish you.'
'Punish me!' I said. I was very surprised. 'Why does the Emperor want to punish me? I helped him to defeat the Blefuscu navy! And I saved the palace from the fire.'
'That's true,' the man agreed. 'But then you made a mistake. The Emperor wanted to destroy Blefuscu completely, and you refused to help him.'
'War is a terrible thing,' I replied. 'I didn't want to kill lots of people.'
'You're right,' the man admitted. 'But now the Emperor thinks you are his enemy. And then he was offended at the way you saved the palace—he says it was an insult to Lilliput!'
Then the important man told me what the Emperor and his ministers were planning.
'Some of his government ministers want to kill you,' he explained. 'But the Emperor has decided not to kill you. He thinks it will be enough to remove your eyes. He wants to blind you, Gulliver!'
I was horrified. I had thought the Emperor was my friend. I had helped his country in the war against Blefuscu — and now he wanted to take away my eyes! I decided to leave Lilliput immediately.
I travelled to Blefuscu, where the Emperor was very kind to me. One day I went for a walk on the beach. I was feeling sad and unhappy, and I was thinking about England. Suddenly I saw a boat in the water. It was a real ship's boat, not one of the little boats of the Blefuscu people. This was a real boat, big enough for someone of my size! I was very excited, and I ran into the sea. I swam out to the boat, and climbed into it. Then I took the boat back to the shore, and tied it up carefully.
I told the Emperor of Blefllscu about the boat.
'I'm lonely here,' I told him. 'I want to go back to England. Maybe I can use that boat to go home, if you will help me. It'll be a long journey, but I'm sure I can do it.'
'Very well,' he said, 'I'll help you. I'll give you food and drink to put in the boat.'
The Emperor ordered his men to prepare my boat. They gave me a large quantity of meat and wine. They also put some animals into the boat — six cows and two bulls, and six ewes and two rams. After a few days everything was ready.
I sailed away from Blefuscu. The sea was very big and lonely. After some days, I saw a large ship, and I followed it. It was an English ship, and one of the sailors saw me. They stopped, and took me on board . They were going to England, and they took me with them.
The captain of the ship was a friendly man. I told him about my adventures in Lilliput and Blefuscu. He did not believe me.
'Little men!' he laughed. 'You tell a good story, sir,' he said, 'but it's an impossible story, all the same.' And he laughed again.
'Then where do you think this came from?' I asked him. I put my hand in my pocket, and took out one of the tiny sheep from Blefuscu. I showed it to the captain. Now he believed my story!
I can’t help it if they want to write about me
E5：作为ex-English major不得不说语言是the key to many things. 从最起先马丁建议把average men and women换到working men and women，到结尾Lord Altrincham说：real people, average people, working people -- 不止是对剧普通话案语调的自己争辨，也是剧自个儿对文字敏感性的self-fulfilled word play.
well it will help if you don’t give them what they crave
E6：作为个人具有Christian forgiveness的挣扎，作为Crown有着对国家的权力和权利。Sometimes she just wants to be a Christian.
character and excitement
E8：Dear Mrs Kennedy. 首先是正剧化地显示堂堂英帝国女皇也禁不住要嫉妒年轻（其实和他自个儿一样大）貌美、受过高教、讲一口流利塞尔维亚（Serbia）语的美利哥第一太太、trophy wife 杰克ie Kennedy，接着几轮回转对那位内人的记念和态度--以致反效果有了尊重的效果与利益。到最终又是一番令人慌紧张张的德性不安，二遍拜候和一封信里又充满了略微女子之间的情愫。
instability and drama
E9：看得时候特别光火，首先是reject这种“受过波折本事成为男士汉”的hyper-masculine ideal和glorification/justification of trauma/bully, especially from the end of the victim；其次是正因为本身经历了如此的严刑，却还要如此vengefully侵害本人孙子。想起StephenFry在Moab里说的--starting from E.M. Forster's time，这个public schools boarding schools 作育出一代代外界纠正 自己矜持 不外露任何情绪的大不列颠及英格兰联合王国男子，and they're all hailed as the ideal of Englishness, of masculinity, of decency and appropriateness. 这里摘抄一段：
well, at least i give them something. You give them nothing
Solidity, caution, integrity, efficiency. Lack of imagination, hypocrisy. These qualities characterize the middle classes in every country, but in England they are national characteristics also, because only in England have the middle classes been in power for one hundred and fifty years.
Just as the heart of England is the middle classes, so the heart of the middle classes is the public school system.
For it is not that the Englishman can’t feel—it is that he is afraid to feel. He has been taught at his public school that feeling is bad form. He must not express great joy or sorrow, or even open his mouth too wide when he talks—his pipe might fall out if he did. He must bottle up his emotions, or let them out only on a very special occasion.
i give them silence
像Elizabeth说的，Bullied children are scarred for life, and scarred children make destroyed adults. Philip怎么样能够说"look at the man it's made me" -- you're the destroyed adult. 父母得以做的最恶的事正是让男女认为到父母对ta是失望的。望着查理躲在树干前边哭的那一幕，小编期待即使有一天自个儿有孩子 ta能够长久不要经历那样的少时。
Silence is enough. It’s the absence of noise
© 本文版权归小编 PN1995.9 全数，任何款式转载请联系小编。
Emptiness. Blank page.
which allows others to shine
but the monarchy should shine
The monarchy, yes, not the mornach.
You have a role, a clear set of rules. All you have to do is follow them
Margaret, you have freedom
All you have to do is enjoy